IJERA MENU CALL FOR PAPER PAPER SUBMISSION WHY CHOOSE IJERA AUTHOR INSTRUCTIONS STATISTICS UNIVERSITY AFFILIATES CHECK PAPER STATUS FAQ IJERA CONTENTS CURRENT ISSUE IJERA ARCHIVE SPECIAL ISSUE CALL FOR CONFERENCE UPCOMING CONFERENCE SPECIAL ISSUE ARCHIVE DOWNLOADS MODEL PAPER COPY RIGHT FORM COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT OPEN ACCESS Abstract: In the present paper, the Encircled Energy Factor (EEF) of an optical system has been studied with an amplitude apodisation filter. Mondal, "Fourier Analytical Treatment of Optical Images a review" Ind. This paper presents such a new shape namely Criss-Cross whose negative behaviour has been discussed. A., "Electromagnetic fields due to dipole antennas over stratified anisotropic media," Geophysics, Vol. It has been found that for a given percentage of light flux within the diffraction pattern, the value of the encircled radius increases gradually with apodisation parameter. E "Principles of Optics", 4th Edn, Pergamon Press London, 2006. The mathematical modelling for finding the transmission and reflection coefficient of the wave in such medium has also been derived. Key words: Fourier Optics, Apodisation, Encircled Energy Factor…EEF (δ). O Reynolds et al, "The New physical Optics Note-book Tutorials in Fourier Optics", SPIE Optical Engineering Press, revised Edn, Bellingham, Washington USA, 1989. Further, it has been used to reduce the size of a rectangular patch antenna.

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Weir, "Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies", Proc. Key words: Energy Policy, Externality, Nigeria Reference [1].

The model aims at determining the least cost energy planning policy path for Nigeria with the least environmental damage.

The main focus of this research is a methodology for integrated energy sector planning, policy impact assessment, and policy mix analysis, incorporating the impact of environmental externality cost of energy supply and use into the planning process.

From the comparative survey of available energy planning models, it was found that the environmental considerations are limited only to estimating the pollution load, thus sending false price signals to the technology market and leading to environmentally distorted policy decisions.

Researchers have come up with several novel shapes which behave as metamaterials. [5] Alexander Remley Katko, "Artificial Negative Permeability Based on a Fractal Jerusalem Cross", Graduation thesis, 2009.

[5] Ref.2 above Abstract: Metamaterials (MM) have been able to make their position strong in the world of electromagnetic in the past years. Smith, et al., "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials", Physical Review E 71, 036617, 2005.

Key words: Metamaterial, negative index, permeability, permittivity, Jerusalem Cross. Shivola, "Electromagnetic mixing formulas and applications", The Institution of Electrical Enginners, London, 1999. G., "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov.

Ross,"Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time-domain techniques", IEEE Trans.

It is now recognized that the dimension of environment protection is of vital importance for sustainable development.

Abstract: The last decade has witnessed a fundamental change in the planning process for development in Nigeria.

(1976), Un Modele Energetique Pour La France, Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Washington D.